Evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-36) amide functions as a novel neuropeptide prompted us to study the gene expression of its receptor in rat brain. Northern blot analysis showed transcripts of similar size in RINm5F cells, hypothalamus, and brain-stem. First-strand cDNA was prepared by using RNA from hypothalamus, brainstem, and R1Nm5F cells and subsequently amplified by PCR. Southern blot analysis of the PCR products showed a major 1.4-kb band in all these preparations. PCR products amplified from hypothalamus were cloned, and the nucleotide sequence of one strand was identical to that described in rat pancreatic islets. In situ hybridization studies showed specific labeling in both neurons and glia of the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, primary olfactory cortex, choroid plexus, and pituitary gland. In the hypothalamus, ventromedial nuclei cells were highly labeled. These findings indicate that GLP-1 receptors are actually synthesized in rat brain. In addition, the colocalization of GLP-1 receptors, glucokinase, and GLUT-2 in the same areas supports the idea that these cells play an important role in glucose sensing in the brain.