Amylin has been reported to decrease glycogen storage in rodent skeletal muscles and produce insulin resistance in intact rats. To test the acute effect of a human amylin analog (AC137) on glucose metabolism in man, seven IDDM patients were infused in a randomized, double blind, cross-over study with AC137 (100 micrograms/h, n = 1; 50 micrograms/h, n = 6) or placebo for 330 min during a two-step euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion rates, 0.2 and 0.6 mU/kg.min; basal and hyperinsulinemic period, respectively) followed by a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp (insulin infusion rate, 1.5 mU/kg.min; hypoglycemic period). During euglycemia, no differences were found in glucose disposal (step 1, 2.43 +/- 0.20 vs. 2.03 +/- 0.26; step 2, 4.28 +/- 0.54 vs. 4.11 +/- 0.45 mg/kg.min; AC137 vs. placebo, mean +/- SEM), arteriovenous substrate balances across the forearm, or hepatic glucose production. During hypoglycemia, glucose fluxes were also similar. However, lactate release from the forearm was more pronounced (P < 0.05) with the analog than with placebo (area under the curve, -11.2 +/- 4.6 vs. -1.4 +/- 2.2 mmol/min.L). Despite similar plasma glucose nadirs (2.7 +/- 0.0 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; AC137 vs. placebo), circulating cortisol and GH rose to significantly higher levels during hypoglycemia with the amylin analog (P < 0.05). In conclusion, acute administration of the amylin analog AC137 did not influence insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during euglycemic conditions. During imposed hypoglycemia, lactate release from skeletal muscle was, however, enhanced, and the rise in cortisol and GH was augmented.