Objectives: This study was designed to determine the clinical value of a Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance in the assessment of cardiac amyloidosis.
Background: Cardiac amyloidosis is an infiltrative disease with diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Therefore, the index of myocardial performance combining systolic and diastolic time intervals could be a useful predictor of clinical outcome in cardiac amyloidosis.
Methods: The study included 45 patients with biopsy-proved amyloidosis and 45 age-matched normal subjects. All patients had typical echocardiographic features of amyloid cardiac involvement. A Doppler-derived index, defined as the sum of isovolumetric contraction time and isovolumetric relaxation time divided by ejection time, was measured from left ventricular outflow and mitral inflow Doppler velocity profiles recorded during routine echocardiography. The index as well as conventional systolic or diastolic echocardiographic/Doppler variables were related to subsequent outcome.
Results: The isovolumetric contraction and relaxation times were prolonged and ejection time was shortened (p < 0.001) in patients with amyloidosis compared with that in normal subjects, resulting in a marked increase of the index from normal values (p < 0.001). In the amyloid group the index was highest in patients with a low stroke index or with both shortened mitral deceleration time and lower ejection fraction. By univariate analysis, New York Heart Association functional class, the index, ejection fraction and mitral deceleration time were significant predictors of outcome. However, by multivariate stepwise regression analysis, functional class and the index were the only independent predictors of survival.
Conclusions: The Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance correlates with global cardiac dysfunction and is a useful predictor of clinical outcome in patients with cardiac amyloidosis.