Tradeoffs between quality and quantity of life: development of the QQ Questionnaire for Cancer Patient Attitudes

Med Decis Making. Apr-Jun 1996;16(2):184-92. doi: 10.1177/0272989X9601600211.


The patient's perspective is of prime concern in weighing the benefits and side effects of oncologic treatment. Little is known about patients' preference and attitudes. The authors developed a short questionnaire to assess patient attitudes concerning trade-offs between quality of life and length, or quantity, of life (the QQ Questionnaire). The questionnaire turned out to be feasible for use in various groups of cancer patients. In a factor analysis, the questionnaire was shown to consist of two factors, a Q(uality) and a L(ength) factor. Values of Cronbach's alpha for the Q and L scales (consisting of four items each) were 0.68 and 0.79, respectively. Younger patients and patients who have children assigned relatively more importance to striving for prolonged survival. Contrary to our expectation, no association was found between scores on the two scales and time tradeoff utility scores. The QQ Questionnaire can be used in research settings to study patient attitudes and the stability and determinants of patients' preferences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • Breast Neoplasms / psychology
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / psychology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / mortality
  • Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • Palliative Care / psychology
  • Quality of Life*
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years*
  • Sick Role*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Survival Analysis
  • Testicular Neoplasms / mortality
  • Testicular Neoplasms / psychology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / therapy