The purpose of the study reported here was to compare behavior, learning, and health problems in boys ages 6 to 12 with lower plasma phospholipid total omega-3 or total omega-6 fatty acid levels with those boys with higher levels of these fatty acids. A greater frequency of symptoms indicative of essential fatty acid deficiency was reported by the parents of subjects with lower plasma omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid concentrations than those with higher levels. A greater number of behavior problems, assessed by the Conners' Rating Scale, temper tantrums, and sleep problems were reported in subjects with lower total omega-3 fatty acid concentrations. Additionally, more learning and health problems were found in subjects with lower total omega-3 fatty acid concentrations. (Only more colds and more antibiotic use were reported by those subjects with lower total omega-6 fatty acids). These findings are discussed in relation to recent findings for omega-3 experimentally deprived animals.