Ancient DNA analysis of Fremont Amerindians of the Great Salt Lake Wetlands

Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996 Apr;99(4):507-18. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199604)99:4<507::AID-AJPA1>3.0.CO;2-R.


Skeletal remains of 47 individuals from the Great Salt Lake Wetlands, affiliated principally with Bear River (A.D. 400-1000) and Levee Phase (A.D. 1000-1350) Fremont cultural elements, were assessed for four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers that, in particular association, define four haplogroups (A, B, C, and D) widely shared among contemporary Amerindian groups. The most striking result is the absence of haplogroup A in this Fremont series, despite its predominance in contemporary Amerindian groups. Additionally, haplogroup B, defined by the presence of a 9bp deletion in region V, is present at the moderately high frequency of 60%. Haplogroups C and D are present at low frequencies. An additional haplotype, "N," observed in some modern populations and two other prehistoric samples, is also present in this Fremont skeletal collection.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Bone and Bones / chemistry*
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / analysis*
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics
  • Gene Frequency
  • Haplotypes
  • History, Medieval
  • Humans
  • Indians, North American / genetics
  • Indians, North American / history*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Utah


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Mitochondrial