Immunological T cell memory manifest itself in an accelerated second-set graft, or allogeneic tumour cell, rejection. Memory viral-immune cytotoxic T cells have shortened kinetics of induction in vivo and differentiate into more potent effector cells in vitro. The requirements for induction of memory T cells are less stringent than for naive T cells. Memory T cells can be activated by antigen (signal 1) or interaction with co-stimulatory molecules (CD28/CD80, signal 2) alone. Memory T cells are phenotypically distinguishable from naive T cells by a number of cell surface markers, but not from activated T cells. Persistence of antigen is not required for the maintenance of long-lived memory. Continuous stimulation by signal 2 alone and or longevity is sufficient to explain life-long persistence of T cell memory. All available data on memory T cells are consistent with a deterministic model of T cell memory formation, following a precise pathway of T cell differentiation.