In the past, numerous reports on drugs probably causing acute pancreatitis have been published. However, most of these case reports were anecdotal with a lack of obvious evidence and did not present a comprehensive summary. Although drug-associated pancreatitis is rare, it is gaining increasing importance with the introduction of several potent new agents, i.e., anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drugs. The following comprehensive review scrutinizes the evidence present in the world literature on drugs associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis and, based on this, categorizes in a definite, probable, or possible causality. In addition, explanations for the pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.