The hairpin stack fold, a novel protein architecture for a new family of protein growth factors

Nat Struct Biol. 1996 Sep;3(9):747-52. doi: 10.1038/nsb0996-747.


The granulin/epithelin protein motif has an unusual structure consisting of a parallel stack of beta-hairpins stapled together by six disulphide bonds. The new structure also contains a folding subdomain shared by small toxins, protease inhibitors as well as the EGF-like protein modules.

Publication types

  • Letter
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Carps
  • Granulins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Structure, Secondary*
  • Proteins / chemistry*


  • Granulins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proteins