An important component of amyloid fibrils in dialysis-related amyloidosis is a form of beta2microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of the Maillard reaction, known as AGE-beta2M. We demonstrate here that the interaction of AGE-beta2M with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), cells important in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory arthropathy of dialysis-related amyloidosis, is mediated by the receptor for AGEs, or RAGE. 125I-AGE-beta2M bound to immobilized RAGE or to MPs in a specific, dose-dependent manner (Kd approximately 53.5 and approximately 81.6 nM, respectively), a process inhibited in the presence of RAGE blockade. AGE-beta2M-mediated monocyte chemotaxis was prevented by excess sRAGE or anti-RAGE IgG. Induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) expression by MPs exposed to AGE-beta2M resulted from engagement of RAGE, as appearances of TNF transcripts and TNF antigen release into culture supernatants were prevented by addition of sRAGE, a process mediated, at least in part, by oxidant stress. AGE-beta2M reduced cytochrome c and the elaboration of TNF by MPs was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. Consistent with these data, immunohistochemical studies of AGE-laden amyloid deposits of a long-term hemodialysis patient revealed positive staining for RAGE in the MPs infiltrating these lesions. These data indicate that RAGE is a central binding site for AGEs formed in vivo and suggest that AGE-beta2M-MP-RAGE interaction likely contributes to the initiation of an inflammatory response in amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients, a process which may ultimately lead to bone and joint destruction.