Defining the regulatory networks for muscle development

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996 Aug;6(4):445-53. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(96)80066-9.


The formation of skeletal muscle during vertebrate embryogenesis requires commitment of mesodermal precursor cells to the skeletal muscle lineage, withdrawal of myoblasts from the cell cycle, and transcriptional activation of dozens of muscle structural genes. The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors - MyoD, myogenin, Myf5, and MRF4 - act at multiple points in the myogenic lineage to establish myoblast identity and to control terminal differentiation. Recent studies have begun to define the inductive mechanisms that regulate myogenic bHLH gene expression and muscle cell determination in the embryo. Myogenic bHLH factors interact with components of the cell cycle machinery to control withdrawal from the cell cycle and act combinatorially with other transcription factors to induce skeletal muscle transcription. Elucidation of these aspects of the myogenic program is leading to a detailed understanding of the regulatory circuits controlling muscle development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Cell Cycle
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genes
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs / genetics*
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs / physiology
  • MEF2 Transcription Factors
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Muscles / embryology*
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors
  • Signal Transduction / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • MEF2 Transcription Factors
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors
  • Transcription Factors