Infant feeding history was investigated in 72 celiac and 288 age-matched reference children in a retrospective questionnaire study. The reply rate was 100% in celiac and 91.6% in reference children. The celiac children were breast-fed for a significantly shorter time than reference children, and they were less often breast-fed at the introduction of gluten. The age of the children at gluten introduction was similar, but the celiac children were significantly more often introduced by a gluten-containing follow-up formula, while the reference children more often started on a gluten-containing porridge. The results can be interpreted in two ways. First, it could be argued that breast milk per se protects against symptoms of celiac disease in childhood. It could, however, also be claimed that breast-feeding merely modulates the gluten introduction, causing a less abrupt introduction of gluten in the baby diet and thereby fewer overt symptoms of the disease.