The LIM homeodomain protein Lim-1 is widely expressed in neural, neural crest and mesoderm derivatives in vertebrate development

Int J Dev Biol. 1996 Apr;40(2):453-61.


Polyclonal antibodies to Xlim-1 homeodomain protein of Xenopus laevis were used to study the developmental expression pattern of this protein in Xenopus, rat and mouse. Western blotting of embryo extracts injected with different Xlim-1 constructs confirmed the specificity of the antibody. Beginning at the gastrula stage, Xlim-1 protein was detected in three cell lineages: (i) notochord, (ii) pronephros and (iii) certain regions of the central nervous system, in agreement with earlier studies of the expression of Xlim-1 RNA (Taira et al., Development 120: 1525-1536, 1994a). In addition, several new locations of Xlim-1 expression were found, including the olfactory organ, retina, otic vesicle, dorsal root ganglia and adrenal gland. Similar expression patterns were seen for the Lim-1 protein in frog and rodent tissues. These observations implicate the Xlim-1 gene in the specification of multiple cell lineages, particularly within the nervous system, and emphasize the conserved nature of the role of this gene in different vertebrate animals.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Specificity / immunology
  • Central Nervous System / embryology
  • Central Nervous System / metabolism
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Female
  • Homeodomain Proteins / analysis*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / immunology
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Mesoderm / metabolism*
  • Mice / embryology*
  • Neural Crest / embryology
  • Neural Crest / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Rats / embryology*
  • Sense Organs / cytology
  • Sense Organs / embryology
  • Sense Organs / metabolism
  • Species Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / analysis*
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / immunology
  • Xenopus / embryology*


  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Isl-2 protein, vertebrate
  • Isl2 protein, mouse
  • Isl2 protein, rat
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Transcription Factors