Mechanics of feline soleus: II. Design and validation of a mathematical model

J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 1996 Apr;17(2):221-33. doi: 10.1007/BF00124244.


We have developed a mathematical model to describe force production in cat soleus during steady-state activation over a range of fascicle lengths and velocities. The model was based primarily upon a three element design by Zajac but also considered the many different features present in other previously described models. We compared quantitatively the usefulness of these features and putative relationships to account for a set of force and length data from cat soleus wholemuscle described in a companion paper. Among the novel features that proved useful were the inclusion of a short-length passive force resisting compression, a new normalisation constant for connective-tissue lengths to replace the potentially troublesome slack length, and a new length dependent term for lengthening velocities in the force-velocity relationship. Each feature of this model was chosen to provide the most accurate description of the data possible without adding unneeded complexity. Previously described functions were compared with novel functions to determine the best description of the experimental data for each of the elements in the model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cats
  • Connective Tissue / physiology
  • Female
  • Isometric Contraction
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results