There is growing evidence that different antigen-presenting cells use specialized mechanisms for antigen uptake. Macropinocytosis and the activity of the mannose receptor have been identified as efficient mechanisms of antigen capture in dendritic cells. The mechanism of uptake determines the intracellular compartment to which antigen is delivered and may determine the type of T-cell epitopes generated. New pathways for presentation of exogenous antigens on MHC class I and II molecules have been identified. These findings provide new insights into antigen presentation in vivo and will be instrumental in designing better methods of vaccination.