Progressive ratio schedules in drug self-administration studies in rats: a method to evaluate reinforcing efficacy

J Neurosci Methods. 1996 May;66(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/0165-0270(95)00153-0.


Drug self-administration studies have recently employed progressive ratio (PR) schedules to examine psychostimulant and opiate reinforcement. This review addresses the technical, statistical, and theoretical issues related to the use of the PR schedule in self-administration studies in rats. Session parameters adopted for use in our laboratory and the considerations relevant to them are described. The strengths and weaknesses of the PR schedule are also discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cocaine / pharmacology*
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Narcotics / pharmacology*
  • Psychomotor Performance / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Self Administration / methods*
  • Self Administration / statistics & numerical data


  • Narcotics
  • Cocaine