Spectroscopic imaging of human brain glutamate by water-suppressed J-refocused coherence transfer at 4.1 T

Magn Reson Med. 1996 Jul;36(1):7-12. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910360103.


The authors reported the development and implementation of a water-suppressed J-refocused coherence transfer sequence to observe glutamate in human brain at 4.1 T. The sequence is modeled for I2S2 and I2S2M spin systems analytically and plotted for a range of echo times. In this sequence, water suppression and refocusing of J-coupled resonances are achieved through a brief multiple quantum step without significant loss of signal. Phantom data are shown. Human brain spectroscopic imaging of glutamate, acquired with a total echo of 36 ms, demonstrates the application of the sequence to observe gray and white matter differences in glutamate content.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Aspartic Acid / metabolism
  • Body Water
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Carbon / chemistry
  • Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Energy Transfer
  • Glutamic Acid / chemistry
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
  • Glutamine / metabolism
  • Gyrus Cinguli / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
  • Models, Chemical
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted


  • Glutamine
  • Aspartic Acid
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Carbon
  • N-acetylaspartate