A total of 594 flat colorectal polyps, removed at endoscopy, were histologically classified into non-neoplastic (n = 49) and neoplastic (n = 545) polyps. Non-neoplastic polyps were subdivided into metaplastic (n = 45) and hyperplastic (n = 4), whereas neoplastic polyps were subdivided into adenomas (n = 481), intramucosal carcinomas (n = 28) and invasive adenocarcinomas (n = 36). Several adenoma phenotypes were discerned: tubular (n = 375), serrated (n = 59), villous (n = 39), mixed (n = 7) and fenestrated (n = 1). Intramucosal carcinomas were subdivided into tubular (n = 26) and serrated (n = 2), and invasive adenocarcinomas into tubular (n = 32), serrated (n = 3) and fenestrated (n = 1). The microscopic characteristics of each histologic phenotype described in this communication are defined and illustrated.