A commercially available immunoglobulin G (IgG) from horses, hyperimmunized to Ebola virus, was evaluated for its ability to protect cynomolgus monkeys against disease following i.m. inoculation with 1 000 PFU Ebola virus (Zaire '95 strain). Six monkeys were treated immediately after infection by i.m. infection of 6.0 ml IgG; these animals developed passive ELISA titers of 1:160 to 1:320 to Ebola, two days afer inoculation. However, the beneficial effects of IgG treatment were limited to a delay in onset of viremia and clinical signs, in comparison with untreated controls. The six IgG recipients had no detectable viremia day 5, in contrast with three virus infected controls whose viremias exceeded 7.0 log10 PFU/ml that day. The controls died on days 6, 6, and 7, while two IgG recipients died day 7 and the remaining 4 died day 8, all with high viremias. These results document that passively acquired antibody can have a beneficial effect in reducing the viral burden in Ebola-infected primates; however, effective treatment of human patients may require antibodies with higher specific activities and more favorable pharmacokinetic properties than the presently available equine IgG.