Update: vaccine side effects, adverse reactions, contraindications, and precautions. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

MMWR Recomm Rep. 1996 Sep 6;45(RR-12):1-35.


This report provides updated information concerning the potential adverse events associated with vaccination for hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This information incorporates findings from a series of recent literature reviews, conducted by an expert committee at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), of all evidence regarding the possible adverse consequences of vaccines administered to children. This report contains modifications to the previously published recommendations of the Advisory committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and is based on an ACIP review of the IOM findings and new research on vaccine safety. In addition, this report incorporates information contained in the "Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: Use of Vaccines and Immune Globulins in Persons with Altered Immunocompetence" (MMWR 1993;42[No. 44-4]) and the "General Recommendations on Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)" (MMWR 1994;43[No. RR-1]). Major changes to the previous recommendations are highlighted within the text, and specific information concerning the following vaccines and the possible adverse events associated with their administration are included: hepatitis B vaccine and anaphylaxis, measles vaccine and a) thrombocytopenia and b) possible risk for death resulting from anaphylaxis or disseminated disease in immunocompromised persons; diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (DTP) and chronic encephalopathy; and tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccines and a) Guillain-Barre syndrome, b) brachial neuritis, and c) possible risk for death resulting from anaphylaxis. These modifications will be incorporated into more comprehensive ACIP recommendations for each vaccine when such statements are revised. Also included in this report are interim recommendations concerning the use of measles and mumps vaccines in a) persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus and b) persons who are allergic to eggs; ACIP is still evaluating these recommendations.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / adverse effects
  • Bacterial Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Contraindications
  • Diphtheria Toxoid / adverse effects
  • Haemophilus Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Measles Vaccine / adverse effects
  • Mumps Vaccine / adverse effects
  • Pertussis Vaccine / adverse effects
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated / adverse effects
  • Tetanus Toxoid / adverse effects
  • Vaccination / adverse effects*
  • Vaccination / standards
  • Viral Vaccines / adverse effects*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Diphtheria Toxoid
  • Haemophilus Vaccines
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines
  • Measles Vaccine
  • Mumps Vaccine
  • Pertussis Vaccine
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated
  • Tetanus Toxoid
  • Viral Vaccines
  • HibTITER protein, Haemophilus influenzae