Fungal isolates from the peritoneal cavity, kidney and liver, respectively, of three premature Australian babies are described as Rhizopus azygosporus. All three babies died. This is the first report as far as we know of the isolation of this fungus from human infections. It has previously been isolated only from Indonesian tempeh. The source of these infections was not determined. Rhizopus azygosporus is closely related to R. microsporus var. microsporus, var. rhizopodiformis and var. chinensis. The occurrence of azygospores in Zygomycetes and the taxonomic position of R. azygosporus are discussed.