The surgical anatomy of the relationships between the perforating and the leptomeningeal arteries

Neurosurgery. 1996 Jul;39(1):72-83. doi: 10.1097/00006123-199607000-00016.


Objective: Despite detailed studies of the perforating arteries, their relationships with the leptomeningeal arteries are almost unknown. These relationships can be of great significance during neurosurgical operations.

Methods: The arteries of the hemispheres, which ranged in number from 17 to 36, were injected with india ink or methylmethacrylate.

Results: The perforating vessels were noted to arise from the following leptomeningeal arteries: the subcallosal branch of the anterior communicating artery (26.6%); the median artery of the corpus callosum (6.6%); the medial orbitofrontal (6.6%) and the olfactory branch (3.3%) of the anterior cerebral artery; the accessory middle cerebral artery (3.3%); the frontal and temporal branches of the middle cerebral artery (66.6%); the temporal branches of the internal carotid and the anterior choroidal arteries (25% each); the peduncular branch of the posterior communicating artery (4.8%); the peduncular, collicular and medial posterior choroidal branches of the posterior cerebral artery (40%); the cerebellar branches (100%); the long pontine branches (20-26.6%); the anterolateral branches (33.3%) of the basilar artery; and the anterolateral or the lateral medullary branches (35.3%) of the vertebral artery. From 19.4 to 100% of some leptomeningeal vessels originated in the large perforating arteries.

Conclusion: From 4.8 to 100% of certain groups of the perforating vessels originated in the leptomeningeal arteries. Occlusion of a leptomeningeal artery that gives rise to the perforating vessel(s) may lead to superficial and deep infarcts in the same patient.

MeSH terms

  • Arteries / anatomy & histology
  • Arteries / surgery
  • Brain / blood supply*
  • Carbon*
  • Coloring Agents
  • Dominance, Cerebral / physiology
  • Histological Techniques
  • Humans
  • Meninges / blood supply*
  • Methylmethacrylate
  • Methylmethacrylates
  • Microsurgery
  • Reference Values


  • Coloring Agents
  • Methylmethacrylates
  • chinese ink
  • Methylmethacrylate
  • Carbon