The Ras/Raf/MEK/MAP kinase cascade transmits signals from activated cell-surface receptors to transcription factors in the nucleus and is an essential component of metazoan intracellular signaling pathways (see, for example, [1-6]). In the mouse, the Raf protein kinase family is comprised of three homologous genes, Raf-1, A-Raf and B-Raf  which are ubiquitously expressed in the developing embryo . We have introduced into the mouse germ line a loss-of-function mutation in the X-chromosomal A-Raf gene, by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. On a predominantly C57 Bl/6 genetic background, A-Raf-deficient mice displayed neurological and intestinal abnormalities and died between 7 and 21 days post-partum. When the mutated allele was maintained on a predominantly 129/OLA background, by contrast, A-Raf-deficient animals survived to adulthood, did not display obvious intestinal abnormalities, were fertile, but did have a subset of the neurological defects.