Intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation of motor circuits

Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1995 Dec;5(6):799-808. doi: 10.1016/0959-4388(95)80109-x.


Neuromodulation of motor circuits by extrinsic inputs provides enormous flexibility in the production of behavior. Recent work has shown that neurons intrinsic to central pattern-generating circuits can evoke neuromodulatory effects in addition to their neurotransmitting actions. Modulatory neurons often elicit a multitude of different effects attributable to actions at different receptors and/or through the release of co-transmitters. Differences in neuromodulation between species can account for differences in behavior. Modulation of neuromodulation may provide an additional level of flexibility to motor circuits.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior / physiology*
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology
  • Humans
  • Locomotion / physiology
  • Motor Neurons / physiology*
  • Neural Pathways / physiology