The pdc1 gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase has been isolated and sequenced from an IR54 rice genomic library. In contrast to a previously isolated intron-less rice genomic pdc, pRgpdc3, this gene contains five intervening introns in the coding region and corresponds to a cDNA clone, pRcpdc1, isolated from an IR54-cDNA library constructed from anaerobically-induced mRNAs. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of this gene with that of the rice pdc2 and pdc3 showed 88% and 89% similarity, and 78% and 79% identity, respectively. Southern blots indicated that more than three genes constitute the pdc gene family in rice. pdc1 is highly inducible under anaerobic conditions. Rice pdc2 is also inducible by anoxia but to a much lesser extent than pdc1.