Mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) has a common property to form an amphiphilic helical structure which is essential for its effective transport of mitochondrial protein. Natural polymorphism in human MTS which affects its mitochondrial transport ability has not been reported. Furthermore, no structural polymorphism for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene has been studied in human population. We here identify diallelic polymorphism (Ala-9Val) in the MTS of human MnSOD in a Japanese population. Calculation of a helix forming potential predicted the typical amphiphilic helical structure in -9Ala allele and its disruption in -9Val allele. We here suggest that this mutation may reflect functional polymorphism of mitochondrial transport of human MnSOD. An association study using this polymorphism showed significant allelic deviation for -9Ala allele (12.1% vs. 19.3%) in Parkinson's disease.