Wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD syndrome; MIM 222300) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral optic atrophy. Previous linkage analysis of multiply affected families indicated that the gene for Wolfram syndrome is on chromosome 4p, and it produced no evidence for locus heterogeneity. We have investigated 12 U.K. families with Wolfram syndrome, and we report confirmation of linkage to chromosome 4p, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.6 with DRD5, assuming homogeneity, and of 5.1, assuming heterogeneity. Overlapping multipoint analysis using six markers at a time produced definite evidence for locus heterogeneity: the maximum multipoint LOD score under homogeneity was <2, whereas when heterogeneity was allowed for an admixture a LOD of 6.2 was obtained in the interval between D4S432 and D4S431, with the peak close to the marker D4S3023. One family with an atypical phenotype was definitely unlinked to the region. Haplotype inspection of the remaining 11 families, which appear linked to chromosome 4p and had typical phenotypes, revealed crossover events during meiosis, which also placed the gene in the interval D4S432 and D4S431. In these families no recombinants were detected with the marker D4S3023, which maps within the same interval.