We report the results of our investigations of a large, inbred, aboriginal Canadian kindred with nine muscular dystrophy patients. The ancestry of all but two of the carrier parents could be traced to a founder couple, seven generations back. Seven patients presented with proximal myopathy consistent with limb girdle-type muscular dystrophy (LGMD), whereas two patients manifested predominantly distal wasting and weakness consistent with Miyoshi myopathy (distal autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy) (MM). Age at onset of symptoms, degree of creatine kinase elevation, and muscle histology were similar in both phenotypes. Segregation of LGMD/MM is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance, and the putative locus is significantly linked (LOD scores >3.0) to six marker loci that span the region of the LGMD2B locus on chromosome 2p. Our initial hypothesis that the affected patients would all be homozygous by descent for microsatellite markers surrounding the disease locus was rejected. Rather, two different core haplotypes, encompassing a 4-cM region spanned by D2S291-D2S145-D2S286, segregated with the disease, indicating that there are two mutant alleles of independent origin in this kindred. There was no association, however, between the two different haplotypes and clinical variability; they do not distinguish between the LGMD and MM phenotypes. Thus, we conclude that LGMD and MM in our population are caused by the same mutation in LGMD2B and that additional factors, both genetic and nongenetic, must contribute to the clinical phenotype.