DNA repair in the eukaryotic cell disrupts local chromatin organization. To investigate whether the resetting of nucleosomal arrays can be linked to the repair process, we developed model systems, with both Xenopus egg extract and human cell extracts, to follow repair and chromatin assembly in parallel on circular DNA templates. Both systems were able to carry out nucleotide excision repair of DNA lesions. We observed that UV-dependent DNA synthesis occurs simultaneously with chromatin assembly, strongly indicating a mechanistic coupling between the two processes. A complementation assay established that chromatin assembly factor I (CAF1) is necessary for this repair associated chromatin formation.