Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-alpha levels are elevated in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid in juvenile parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease

Neurosci Lett. 1996 Jun 14;211(1):13-6. doi: 10.1016/0304-3940(96)12706-3.


Interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha were measured for the first time in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (VCSF) from control non-parkinsonian patients, patients with juvenile parkinsonism (JP) and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassays. All cytokines were detectable in VCSF from control and parkinsonian patients, and the concentrations were much higher than those in lumbar CFS. The concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-alpha in VCSF were higher in JP than those in controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, the concentrations of IL-2 and IL-6 in VCSF from patients with PD were higher than those from control patients (P < 0.05). These results agree with our previous reports, in which the cytokine levels were elevated in the striatal dopaminergic region of the brain from patients with PD. Since VCSF is produced in the ventricles, the alteration of cytokines in VCSF may reflect the changes of cytokines in the brain. Because cytokines play an important role as mitogens and neurotrophic factors in the brain, the increases in cytokines as a compensatory response may occur in the brain of patients of JP or PD during the progress of neurodegeneration. Increase in cytokines may contribute not only as a compensatory response but as a primary initiating trigger for the neurodegeneration.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Aged
  • Cerebral Ventricles / metabolism*
  • Cerebral Ventricles / pathology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukins / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitogens / pharmacology
  • Nerve Degeneration / drug effects
  • Nerve Degeneration / physiology
  • Parkinson Disease / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Parkinson Disease / pathology
  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / cerebrospinal fluid


  • Interleukins
  • Mitogens
  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Epidermal Growth Factor