Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, whereas treatment with biologics has achieved limited success. Although monoclonal antibodies able to recognize human RCC have been identified, most induce little complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and thus are of limited potential as therapeutic modalities in their natural conformation. We evaluated a human/ mouse chimeric derivative of the previously described G250 murine monoclonal antibody (mAb), reactive with RCC, to identify a reagent for potential immunotherapy. This chimeric antibody (ch-G250) is composed of the murine variable region from the G250 mAb, which recognizes a tumor-associated antigen expressed on 95% of primary and 86% of metastatic renal cell carcinomas. The constant region of the ch-G250 is comprised of the human IgG1 isotype domains. This chimeric antibody does not bind to normal renal tissue or other normal human tissues, with the exception of gastric mucosal cells and large bile-duct epithelium. Clinical radiolocalization studies have demonstrated the relative tumor-targeting potential of this radiolabeled antibody. This ch-G250 antibody facilitated potent ADCC against several RCC lines when using in vitro and in vivo interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy control donors and patients with cancer, respectively. This lymphocyte-mediated ADCC was specific for RCC cells recognized by the ch-G250 antibody. Using flow cytometry, we found that the level of ADCC was directly related to the degree of binding of ch-G250 to the renal cell target. These in vitro data suggest that this antibody may improve efficacy of IL-2 therapy by targeting cytokine-activated effector cells directly to the tumor and facilitating in vivo ADCC. Clinical studies combining this chimeric antibody with IL-2 treatment will be needed to test the antitumor effects of this ADCC effect in vivo.