One hundred forty-one children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were screened for serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antigliadin antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. None of them had gastrointestinal symptoms, and no major nutritional disturbances were detected except for a girl with moderate growth delay. Twelve patients with positive IgA antigliadin antibodies on two or more consecutive measurements underwent a small intestinal biopsy; four of them had a subtotal villous atrophy, and celiac disease was diagnosed; in another patient, a partial villous atrophy was observed. Children suffering from both diabetes and celiac disease showed an onset of diabetes at a younger age than did nonceliac patients. Prevalence of celiac disease in the screened population is 2.85%, which is higher than in the general population of the Comunidad Valenciana (one in 2,500 live births).