The aim of this study was to determine the correspondence between human and porcine chromosome fragments using whole chromosome painting probes from both species in heterologous hybridization experiments (bidirectional heterologous chromosome painting). Bidirectional experiments allow the determination of segment-to-segment homologies between the chromosomes of these two species. Chromosome-specific painting probes from both species were, except one, obtained by DOP-PCR or PARM-PCR amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes. The probes labeled 95% of the total length of the porcine chromosomes with human painting probes and 60% of the human chromosomes in the reverse experiments. Syntenic relationships of chromosomal segments on the karyotype of both species were determined. There was close agreement between com- parative gene mapping data and the identified homologous segments; this comparison enabled orientation of the segments. We demonstrate that bidirectional heterologous chromosome painting is a highly efficient way of generating comparative cytogenetic maps.