Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions from 40 Japanese wild boars were examined by direct sequencing after amplification by PCR. From the DNA sequences obtained, we found eight haplotypes, whose differences arose via transitions. The geographical distribution of these different haplotypes indicated that wild boar populations inhabited limited areas and that there was some restricted gene flow between local populations. Eight mtDNA haplotypes from Eastern and Western domestic pigs and the Ryukyu wild boar were also analyzed as references to those from Japanese wild boars. The cluster analyses of the control-region sequences showed that those from Japanese wild boars belong to the Asian type as do those from Eastern domestic pigs and the Ryukyu wild boar, which differed from the European type (Western domestic pigs).