Home oxygen and ventilation therapies are used to treat children who have varying degrees of chronic respiratory insufficiency from many causes. Potential sequelae to even mild or intermittent respiratory insufficiency have been identified. Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who still require oxygen can be discharged earlier from hospitals with appropriate discharge planning and family support. Children with progressive diseases may eventually require oxygen or ventilation therapies to improve the duration or quality of their lives. Obstructive sleep apnea has been treated with supplemental oxygen and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Guidelines exist for initiation and home management of oxygen and invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation.