Prostate cancer is the most common newly diagnosed non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. It is a unique neoplasm because of the large discrepancy between its clinical incidence and the much higher incidence of latent cancer. Predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer, especially the cancers detected incidentally or by screening, remains a clinically important problem. Immunoreactivity for Onco-antigen 519 (OA-519), a recently described fatty acid synthase (FAS), has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancers. The authors have previously shown that its detection in prostate cancer correlated with high-grade, large volume, and advanced stage tumors. This study examines the association between OA-519 immunoreactivity in primary prostate cancer and disease progression. The authors used immunohistochemistry with an affinity-purified anti-OA-519 antibody and examined primary prostate cancers (stages A1 to D1) from 99 men with a mean follow-up of 4 years (range = 2 to 9.3). Survival analysis was used to evaluate differences in progression-free survival. OA-519 immunoreactivity was seen in 56 (57%) of the 99 primary prostate cancers examined. OA-519-positive cancers were more likely to progress than the OA-519-negative cancers (P < .04). Univariate survival analysis showed that OA-519 (FAS), histological grade (Gleason score), and clinical stage were significant predictors of disease progression. Multivariate analyses of all cases showed that only histological grade was significant. However, multivariate analysis of the 85 cancers with Gleason scores 2-7 (ie, low to intermediate grade) showed OA-519 (FAS) immunoreactivity to be the only statistically significant predictor of cancer progression (P < .02). Expression of the fatty acid synthase OA-519 by prostate cancers is potentially a clinically useful predictor of disease progression. It appears to be independent of histological grade (Gleason score), at least in cancers with low to intermediate grades. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of fatty acid synthase in malignancy and the potential therapeutic implications of enzyme blockers.