To analyse the pre- and post-Gulf War changes in the outcome of pregnancy and to explore the possible causes that could have affected these changes, a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients delivering in Maternity Hospital Kuwait (MHK) was carried out for the period 1987-89 (pre-Gulf-War) and 1992 (post-Gulf War). The records of 1991 were used when adequate information was available. The normal z test was used to assess the significance between two proportions. There is a significant rise in abortion, low birth weight babies, triplet pregnancies, and major congenital anomalies in the post-war period. The still-birth rate, early neonatal mortality rate and perinatal mortality rate significantly increased in the immediate post-war period in 1991, but decreased to levels below the pre-war period in 1992. It should be investigated whether these changes are secondary to the changes in the population structure; the effects of war in terms of deterioration of health care services; environmental pollution caused by oil well fires, oil spills; or the psychological trauma, anxiety and stress caused by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.