Galanthamine is a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which has shown potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Galanthamine is selective for acetylcholinesterase versus butyrylcholinesterase; however, the drug produces greater enzyme inhibition in human erythrocytes than in human brain tissue. Galanthamine attenuates drug-and lesion-induced cognitive deficits in animal models of learning and memory. Preliminary results in patients with Alzheimer's disease have reported galanthamine to be associated with a reduction in cognitive deterioration on some neuropsychiatric rating scales. Nausea and vomiting are the most commonly reported adverse effects; liver toxicity has not been reported to date.