The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more

Immunol Today. 1996 Mar;17(3):138-46. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(96)80606-2.


Since their discovery nearly ten years ago, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 subsets have been implicated in the regulation of many immune responses. In this article, Tim Mosmann and Subash Sad discuss the increasing number of T-cell subsets defined by cytokine patterns; the differentiation pathways of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; the contribution of other cell types to these patterns; and the cytokine interactions during infection and pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cytokines / physiology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2 / metabolism
  • Th1 Cells / physiology*
  • Th2 Cells / physiology*


  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-2