Somatic treatment of catatonia

Int J Psychiatry Med. 1995;25(4):345-69. doi: 10.2190/X0FF-VU7G-QQP7-L5V7.


Objective: The authors reviewed the recent literature regarding the treatment of catatonia as a syndrome of multiple etiologies. Given the historical and clinical association of catatonia with schizophrenia, the authors' examined the assumption that the first-line treatment of catatonia is antipsychotic medication.

Methods: Articles published between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1994 were located using the Paperchase medical literature search system. Additionally, references from those identified articles were examined for possible inclusion in this review. To be included in this review, articles had to be written in English and report specific symptoms of catatonia to determine, retrospectively, if DSM-IV criteria for catatonia were met.

Results: Seventy publications met inclusion criteria and reported on a total of 178 patients and included 270 separate treatment episodes. Most of the articles were case-reports, although a few case-series were identified. Multiple causes of catatonia were identified in these reports. The most commonly reported treatment for catatonia was with benzodiazepines which were effective in 70 percent of the cases, with lorazepam demonstrating the highest frequency of use and a 79 percent complete response rate. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was also efficacious (85%) and was more likely to provide a positive outcome in cases of malignant catatonia. Antipsychotics demonstrated poor efficacy.

Conclusions: Catatonia is a nonspecific syndrome with multiple etiologies. Treatment of catatonia should be based on the underlying cause when it is identifiable. Lorazepam appears to offer a safe, effective first-line treatment of catatonia. ECT should be considered when rapid resolution is necessary (e.g., malignant catatonia) or when an initial lorazepam trial fails.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Catatonia / etiology
  • Catatonia / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy*
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Benzodiazepines