To update 2 National High Blood Pressure Education Program working group reports on hypertension and chronic renal failure and renovascular hypertension, a working group was appointed by the director of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Literature was searched through MEDLINE and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute information center library. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The working group members produced initial draft documents that were circulated to additional experts on hypertension and renal disease. This reiterative process occurred for 18 draft documents. The final report was sent to the representatives of the 44 organizations on the Coordinating Committee for vote and unanimously approved September 1, 1995. The report recommended treatment of hypertension to the goal of 130/85 mm Hg with whatever therapy is necessary to prevent the development of hypertensive nephrosclerosis or the progression of established renal disease of diverse causes. It seems reasonable to recommend angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as initial therapy for patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria or overt diabetic nephropathy with and without hypertension. Renovascular disease has emerged as a major cause of end-stage renal disease, especially in the elderly. Newer screening procedures for the noninvasive screening of renovascular disease include the captopril test, renal scintigraphy following captopril administration, duplex scanning, and magnetic resonance angiography.