The purpose of this study of 3211 cellulose-fiber production workers was to evaluate earlier findings of excess biliary tract and liver cancer in a similarly exposed cohort reported in 1990. Mortality from biliary tract and liver cancer was not increased in this study population, and there was no excess mortality from pancreatic cancer. Mortality was not elevated for cancers of the lung or liver, sites at which tumors were induced in experimental animals exposed to methylene chloride. Men with 20 or more years of employment exhibited increased mortality from prostate cancer, whereas women who also had 20 or more years of employment experienced higher-than-expected mortality from cervical cancer. Although these apparent increases in mortality are difficult to interpret biologically and are not consistent with previous studies, they require further investigation.