Molecular evolution of the N-formyl peptide and C5a receptors in non-human primates

Immunogenetics. 1996;44(6):446-52. doi: 10.1007/BF02602806.


N-formyl peptides (FMLP) and complement fragment C5a are neutrophil chemoattractants. In humans, a single-copy gene was identified for the C5a receptor, and the receptor for FMLP (FPR1) is encoded by a single gene that shows 53% amino acid similarity to the C5aR. Two other human FPR1 homologues, FPR-like 1 (FPR2/FPRL1) and FPR-like 2 (FPRL2) have been cloned. The human C5aR, FPR1, FPRL1, and FPRL2 are physically linked. By direct sequencing or by sequencing plasmid clones we studied the C5aR and FPR genes from four non-human primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaque). The sequences showed 95% - 99% similarity to the human homologues, with the major divergences observed in macaque. In these genes, the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic domains are highly conserved, while the highest divergence corresponded to the extracellular loops involved in ligand binding. Additionally, we constructed a physical map of these genes in non-human primates. In all species the four genes were physically linked and we defined the relative orientation of the four genes in primates: C5aR>FPR1>FPR2 (FPRL1)>FPRL2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Gorilla gorilla
  • Humans
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pan troglodytes
  • Phylogeny
  • Pongo pygmaeus
  • Primates / classification
  • Primates / genetics*
  • Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a
  • Receptors, Complement / genetics*
  • Receptors, Formyl Peptide
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics*
  • Receptors, Lipoxin*
  • Receptors, Peptide / genetics*
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Antigens, CD
  • FPR2 protein, human
  • Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a
  • Receptors, Complement
  • Receptors, Formyl Peptide
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Lipoxin
  • Receptors, Peptide

Associated data

  • GENBANK/X97730
  • GENBANK/X97731
  • GENBANK/X97732
  • GENBANK/X97733
  • GENBANK/X97734
  • GENBANK/X97735
  • GENBANK/X97736
  • GENBANK/X97737
  • GENBANK/X97738
  • GENBANK/X97739
  • GENBANK/X97740
  • GENBANK/X97741
  • GENBANK/X97742
  • GENBANK/X97743
  • GENBANK/X97744
  • GENBANK/X97745