1. Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics were measured in 38 children with cancer. 2. A high degree of inter-patient variation was seen in all pharmacokinetic parameters. Cyclophosphamide half-life varied between 1.1 and 16.8 h, clearance varied between 1.2 and 10.61 h-1 m-2 and volume of distribution varied between 0.26 and 1.48 1 kg-1. 3. The half-life of cyclophosphamide was prolonged at high dose levels (P = 0.008). 4. Children who had received prior treatment with dexamethasone showed a mean increase in clearance of 2.51 h-1 m-2 (P = 0.001) presumably as a result of CYP450 enzyme induction. 5. Treatment with allopurinol or chlorpromazine was associated with a significant increase in cyclophosphamide half-life (P < 0.001 in both cases). 6. Dose and concurrent treatment may influence cyclophosphamide metabolism in vivo and thus potentially alter the drugs therapeutic effect.