Dietary calcium, potassium, magnesium and blood pressure in the Netherlands

Int J Epidemiol. 1995 Dec;24(6):1117-23. doi: 10.1093/ije/24.6.1117.


Background: The quantitative contribution of dietary calcium, potassium and magnesium to blood pressure levels remains unknown as does the combined effect of dietary calcium, potassium and magnesium.

Methods: The relation between blood pressure and dietary calcium, potassium and magnesium and the combined effect of these minerals on blood pressure was studied in 20,921 Dutch men and women aged 20-59 years. Food intake was measured by a food frequency questionnaire. The data were adjusted for age, body mass index, heart rate, alcohol and energy intake.

Results: An inverse association was observed between blood pressure and dietary potassium and magnesium in both men and women. Dietary calcium was inversely related to systolic blood pressure (SBP) in women and with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in men. The relation between magnesium intake and blood pressure was stronger than those between blood pressure and intakes of potassium and calcium. Men and women who consumed a diet with intakes in the upper tertiles of all three minerals had a lower SBP and DBP compared to those who had intakes in the lower tertiles (men: SBP = -1.3 (95% CI: -2.6, -0.1), DBP = -1.9 (95% CI: -2.7, -1.0), women: SBP = -1.8 (95% CI: -3.1, -0.5), DBP = -1.5 (95% CI: -2.4, -0.7).

Conclusion: These results suggest that diets rich in calcium, potassium and magnesium are associated with lower blood pressure.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Potassium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Regression Analysis


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Magnesium