The initial goal of this study was to localize as many genes as possible that lead to syndromic and nonspecific XLMR. More recently, this goal has been redefined to include narrowing these localizations and cloning specific genes. In the last 5 years, 61 families have participated in this study; 34 have a projected or actual lod score greater than 2.0. Restudy of 12 families reported previously has been a particularly productive aspect of this study and has led to clinical redefinition and new or improved localization of most of these syndromes. Five possible new XLMR syndromes have been identified. Five large families with nonspecific XLMR have been regionally localized. Since many XLMR conditions are based on only 1 or 2 family reports, one of the major purposes of this summary is to provide clinical data on the study families so that collaborative projects can be undertaken with other centers that have similar families.