A comparison of tibiofemoral joint forces and electromyographic activity during open and closed kinetic chain exercises

Am J Sports Med. 1996 Jul-Aug;24(4):518-27. doi: 10.1177/036354659602400418.


We chose to investigate tibiofemoral joint kinetics (compressive force, anteroposterior shear force, and extension torque) and electromyographic activity of the quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscles during open kinetic chain knee extension and closed kinetic chain leg press and squat. Ten uninjured male subjects performed 4 isotonic repetitions with a 12 repetition maximal weight for each exercise. Tibiofemoral forces were calculated using electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data. During the squat, the maximal compressive force was 6139 +/- 1708 N, occurring at 91 degrees of knee flexion; whereas the maximal compressive force for the knee extension exercise was 4598 +/- 2546 N (at 90 degrees knee flexion). During the closed kinetic chain exercises, a posterior shear force (posterior cruciate ligament stress) occurred throughout the range of motion, with the peak occurring from 85 degrees to 105 degrees of knee flexion. An anterior shear force (anterior cruciate ligament stress) was noted during open kinetic chain knee extension from 40 degrees to full extension; a peak force of 248 +/- 259 N was noted at 14 degrees of knee flexion. Electromyographic data indicated greater hamstring and quadriceps muscle co-contraction during the squat compared with the other two exercises. During the leg press, the quadriceps muscle electromyographic activity was approximately 39% to 52% of maximal velocity isometric contraction; whereas hamstring muscle activity was minimal (12% maximal velocity isometric contraction). This study demonstrated significant differences in tibiofemoral forces and muscle activity between the two closed kinetic chain exercises, and between the open and closed kinetic chain exercises.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Electromyography
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / physiology*
  • Leg / physiology
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*