Pediatric brain tumors occur with a frequency of 24 to 27 cases/year within a cohort of 1 million children. Nearly 25% of these lesions will involve the cerebral hemisphere, with the low-grade glioma representing the most common group of tumors in this location. Pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas are the most frequently encountered glioma, although other variants, such as the ganglioglioma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, astroblastoma, ependymoma, and oligodendroglioma, must also be considered in the differential diagnosis. The etiology of these tumors remains obscure, although may be linked to therapeutic radiotherapy, previous history of hematopoietic malignancy and maternal exposure to nitrosamine-laden foods. An associated link to a phakomatosis, e.g., neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, has also been documented to exist with astrocytomas, in particular. The goals of surgery include a complete removal, in most circumstances, with an attempt to alleviate an associated seizure disorder when intractable. This is possible in nearly every type of hemispheric glioma with the aid of intraoperative navigational systems, i.e., frameless stereotaxy, neurophysiological based stimulation mapping, and electrocorticography. In the setting where a complete removal is possible, no further therapy is warranted. For those lesions that are incompletely resected, conservative management with routine diagnostic imaging follow-up is appropriate. Reoperation is necessary if recurrence is documented and radiotherapy is utilized for those lesions that are incompletely resected following recurrence.