Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common multisystem disorder that is frequently associated with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions within the central nervous system. Improvements in neuroimaging have led to increased detection of both types of lesions. Focal areas of increased T2 signal represent the most common abnormalities detected. The vast majority of such lesions are non-neoplastic and fluctuate in number and size during childhood. Optic pathway tumors are second in frequency and generally manifest an indolent natural history, although some lesions will increase in size over time and lead to progressive visual impairment. A smaller percentage of patients will develop gliomas within the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres of brain-stem. This article will review areas of controversy in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with NF1 and will present our approach to these issues. We will also discuss therapeutic considerations in these patients that take into account the unique features of the underlying disorder.