Treatment of meniscal injuries in the knee has evolved over the past three decades. New research regarding the functional roles of the menisci has increased emphasis on the preservation of meniscal tissue. Meniscal transplantation has developed as a surgical technique for individuals whose menisci have been compromised through trauma or previous meniscectomy. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature regarding meniscal function, the deleterious effects of meniscectomy, and the development of transplantation of allograft menisci as a surgical technique. A case study of a 28-year-old male undergoing medial meniscus transplantation is presented, with emphasis on the development of postoperative rehabilitation guidelines.